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State Aid and Public Private Partnerships – Containing the Threat to Free Markets and Competition

Christopher Bovis


I. Introduction Concerns regarding free trade and competition are ongoing and continuous attempts are made to limit obstacles thereto. They formed part of the agenda during discussions for the creation of an International Trade Organisation in the late 1940s, reflecting concerns informed by the behaviour of German cartels and Japanese zaibatsu in the pre-war period that international cartel and restrictive business practices block market access. In th


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