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Competition in the Provision of Traffic Lights and Possible Consequences for the Application of PPP-Models

Hans Wilhelm Alfen, Andreas Leupold


I. Introduction One of the most important measures to handle the growing traffic volume in cities is an efficient traffic- management system. As obligatory instructions for road users and due to their visibility, traffic lights are the most relevant element of a traffic management system. In order to meet the high safety requirements related to traffic lights, cities have to make big efforts not only to install but also to maintain and modernise their


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