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Abnormally Low Tenders:

Basic Concepts in Light of EU Procurement Directives

Mari Ann Simovart, Bettina Tugendreich, Ján Azud, Joseph Kunz


Keywords: abnormally low tender, Directive 2014/24/EU, Public Sector Directive, Article 69

This article discusses Article 69 of Directive 2014/24/EU, analysing basic concepts like abnormally low tender, indicating how an abnormally low tender should be identified by the contracting authority and the steps necessary to reach a balanced conclusion on a low-priced tender’s (ir-)regularity. This article explains the meaning of abnormally low tenders from the EU law perspective, providing a basis for the following articles in this special edition of the journal.
Keywords: abnormally low tender; Directive 2014/24/EU; Public Sector Directive; Article 69

Associate Professor Mari Ann Simovart, Faculty of Law, University of Tartu, Estonia; Member of the Procurement Review Board for the European Space Agency. For correspondence: <>. Dr Bettina Tugendreich, Attorney (Berlin, Germany) and Attorney at Law (New York, USA), Partner at RAUE PartmbB, Berlin (Germany), certified specialist for public procurement law. Ján Azud, Partner and Head of Public Procurement and Infrastructure Project Finance at Ružička And Partners, Bratislava, Slovakia. Joseph Kunz, Policy Advisor at Deutscher Bundestag, Germany.


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