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Cooperation in Defence and Security Procurement among EU Member States journal article

Applicable Law and Legal Protection

Pascal Friton, Christopher Wolters, Niklas Andree

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 15 (2020), Issue 1, Page 24 - 41

Strengthening cooperation in defence and security procurement among Member States has become an important concern of the European Union. Because joint procurements reduce costs, facilitate cooperation and strengthen allies, the European Commission has encouraged Member States repeatedly to cooperate more strongly in such matters. The expected increase in cooperation creates a pressing need to familiarise oneself with the applicable legal framework – a need this paper seeks to satisfy. It focuses on cases, in which Member States charge one entity (which may be, for example, one of the Member States or an international organisation) with the procurement of security goods and services and proceeds in three main steps. First, it analyses the applicable procurement rules for both the external relationship between the entity and the supplier as well as the internal relationship between the entity and the participating Member States. In a second step, the paper proceeds in closely examining the narrowly confined exemptions found in EU primary law as well as the exemption framework of Directive 2009/81/EC. In its final section, the paper delineates the legal protection available to aggrieved parties with respect to both relationships. Keywords: Defence and security; Joint/collaborative procurement; Directive 2009/81/EC; Article 346 TFEU.


On Competition, Free Movement and Procurement journal article

Irgita’s Public Cooperation Conundrum

Willem Janssen, Erik Olsson

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 15 (2020), Issue 1, Page 2 - 12

Competition, free movement and procurement are interrelated concepts that have long influenced the discretionary power of public authorities in the European Union to provide services through cooperation with other authorities. This contribution delves into this important issue, which should regain new attention because of the Irgita case before the CJEU. This case has seemingly created a legal conundrum for public cooperation and framework agreements. The discussion in this contribution brings to light the broad implications of this judgement for these two types of cooperation, and poses the question if the influence of EU public procurement law has made it (nearly) impossible to cooperate accordingly in the future. Keywords: Public cooperation; Procurement; Free movement; Competition.


Deus Ex Machina? journal article

Some Remarks on Public Procurement in the Second Machine Age

Paweł Nowicki

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 15 (2020), Issue 1, Page 53 - 60

The ‘Second Machine Age’ is a term created by two MIT professors, Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, and means the time of emerging technologies: artificial intelligence, machine learning, neurotechnology, biotechnology, virtual reality, Big Data, Internet of Things, blockchain, etc. Emerging technologies are seemingly not related to law, and in particular to public procurement law, but enter into complex relationships with legal regulation. This paper aims to introduce both the opportunities and challenges that some of these technologies (AI, blockchain, smart contracts) create for public procurement praxis, showing that it’s not deus ex machina. New technologies will undoubtedly enrich and improve the public procurement system, but they also raise legitimate ethical and legal concerns. Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Machine learning; Blockchain; Smart contracts; Future of public procurement; Digitalisation.


Risk Assessment in Public Contracts journal article

Katherine Bloomfield

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 14 (2019), Issue 1, Page 7 - 15

This article aims to introduce a novel approach to risk assessment in public service commissioning contracts, through the lens of the UK’s defence sector. It begins by providing a concise background to the contemporary service commissioning tools and approaches that are currently adopted by public sector organisations, paying particular attention to the contemporary implementation of framework agreements. Risk assessment in public sector contracting is embedded by the choice of prescribed terms and conditions, which by design, are formalised within a contract to mitigate a menu of recurrent or common risks. Whilst the interpretation, incorporation and reasonableness of the contractual terms and conditions are readily acknowledged amongst legal practitioners as a fundamental pillar for risk assessment, the dynamic patterns associated with risk remains undervalued. To fully account for the dynamic nature of risk, a tool for mapping the migration of risk has been developed in order to provide a new method of ex ante risk assessment to the design and inception of public sector contracts. Keywords: Contracts; Public sector procurement; Risk assessment; Systemic risk; Framework agreements.


Rethinking The Role Of Civil Society In Public Procurement journal article

Carol Cravero

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 14 (2019), Issue 1, Page 30 - 42

Global challenges increasingly require collaborative state-civil society efforts. The formulation and delivery of public policies are no longer the prerogative of the public administration alone. Instead, civil society might play an important role in public policies, including buying practices. Although examples of civil society’s involvement already exist in some public procurement frameworks, its potential is still underexploited or even neglected as to specific public procurement’s stages or purposes. Whilst some specific provisions have been enacted to ensure its effective participation in public procurement to enhance transparency, civil society involvement in buying processes might help fostering sustainability. This paper specifically analyses the questions on how and when (ie at what procurement stage) the involvement of civil society is/can be provided and for what purpose(s) in the light of the 2018 OECD-MAPS and the MDBs guidance documents with a particular focus integrity pacts. Keywords: Sustainable public procurement; Civil society; Integrity.


The Directive 2014/24/EU and the Implementation of e-Procurement in Portugal – Part I journal article

Raquel Carvalho

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 14 (2019), Issue 1, Page 43 - 54

Portugal has been leading the way in the implementation of e-procurement within the European Union. This paper, presented in two Parts, starts, in this Part I, by explaining the framework of e-procurement, describing the Portuguese experience regarding the use of electronic platforms based on factual data assembled by the Portuguese regulatory body. Part II describes the legal regime imposed by the European Union Law thoroughly, particularly by article 22 of Directive 2014/24/EU, which is contained in a specific ruling as it has occurred before the full 2014 Directives transposition. To provide the full picture of e-procurement in Portugal, the paper also explains the projected intention of the Directive transposition and the actual legal ruling enshrined in the Public Contracts Code (PCC). Keywords: e-Procurement; Directive 2014/24/EU Implementation


Sanctionable Misconduct in the Procurement Legislation of Azerbaijan journal article

Teymour Aliyev

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 14 (2019), Issue 1, Page 55 - 62

The Republic of Azerbaijan, as a young member of the Council of Europe, which ratified and implemented to its legislation the provisions of numerous conventions against corruption as well as other international agreements on combating transnational crimes, money laundering and other corruption-related misconduct, and by being a developing country and benefiting from loans and other funds provided by the World Bank Group (WBG), should substantially upgrade its anti-corruption legislation and especially in the procurement area in order to keep pace with fast changing international standards. Whilst the concept of corruption may be more or less universal both in the national legislation and international normative documents, the notions of fraud and other ‘corruption-related’ misbehaviour in laws of Azerbaijan should be clearly defined and advanced to match the definitions used by the WBG and other multilateral development banks. And when they are legibly defined, the grounds for the exclusion and debarment of bidders and contractors committing such misconduct and sanctions should be broadened and differentiated with an eye to ensure fairness of the procurement process and harmonization with regulations applied internationally. In this work the terms of corruption, forgery, fraud and coercion according to the national legislation of Azerbaijan and the WBG standards have been analysed and compared. Further, in order to demonstrate legal shortages and loopholes at the national level, the legal grounds for the exclusion and debarment of bidders committing corruption-related acts at procurement procedures in Azerbaijan and its champion company SOCAR, and the type of applicable sanctions, with comparison to the provisions of the suspension and debarment standards employed by the WBG, have been described. Finally, the author has tried to offer proposals on the elimination of regulatory gaps for the purpose of ensuring the effectiveness and fairness of procurement-related exclusion and debarment process in Azerbaijan. Keywords: Corruption-related Misconduct; Sanctions; Exclusion; Debarment; World Bank Group; Procurement legislation.


Directive 2014/24/EU and the Implementation of e-Procurement in Portugal – Part II journal article

Raquel Carvalho

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 14 (2019), Issue 2, Page 70 - 78

This Part II concludes the paper published in EPPPL 1-2019 regarding the implementation of e-procurement in Portugal. In Part I, the evolution regarding e-procurement provisions within Public Procurement Directives from 2004 to 2014 was addressed. Part II now addresses how both the Public Contracts Code and the specific legislation regarding electronic platforms have transposed the 2014 Public Procurement Directives into internal law, namely: (i) how the transposition of articles 29, 22, 40 and annexes of the 2014 Directives was made [not only the legal regime but also how some litigious questions were taken (and solved) to national administrative courts]; (ii) how the first intention of the Legislator to transpose the 2014 Directives went; and (iii) how they were actually effectively transposed. As already referred to in Part I, the transposition of the 2014 Directives in Portugal was made through a two-step procedure. Article 22 of the 2014/24/Directive was regulated by Law 96/2015, a very extensive and complex regulation regarding e-procurement, while the remaining provisions of the 2014 Directives were transposed in 2017 after a period of public discussion of a very different draft. The path that has been built since 2004 is, thus, consolidated.


The Cayman Islands New Public Procurement Legal Framework journal article

Manuscript or First Draft?

Laura Panadès-Estruch

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 14 (2019), Issue 2, Page 79 - 86

The Cayman Islands is better known as an offshore jurisdiction and a tourist destination. In contrast, this article explores commercial government policy through the lens of public procurement. May 2018 established a legal framework and the institutional set-up was finalised in December. In response, this timely assessment of current legal developments formulates recommendations to strengthen the position of the public sector in procurement. It argues that the government is at risk of breaching its own legal obligations in the new regulatory framework, despite making some progress towards modern standards of enhanced value for money, accountability and transparency. Three urgent issues are identified: fine-tuning the publicity regime; curtailing the scope of direct awards; and reinforcing ethics in government. The critical perspective of the article will interest academics, policy-makers and practitioners alike.


The Impact of the EU Data Protection Rules on the GPA journal article

Zbigniew Raczkiewicz, Antoine Malherme

European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, Volume 14 (2019), Issue 3, Page 156 - 173

The new rules introduced in the European Union by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) have a tremendous impact on all aspects of our lives, including public procurements. They apply not only to the domestic public procurements but also to the ones covered by international agreements, like the World Trade Organisation’s Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA). It is therefore interesting to analyse what impact the European Union data protection rules have on the application of GPA provisions, in particular if the former do not restrict the latter.